Difference Between Encaustic and Tempera Paint
Encaustic is a type of hot wax painting used since the ancient times. It's most characteristics are same as the oil painting, as it is based on wax or oil based binder. It is a method of making artworks by utilizing a heated encaustic media or wax to which colored pigments have been added.
In ancient Greek and Roman painting, encaustic painting was a popular technique. The word "encaustic" comes from the Greek word "enkaustikos," which meaning "to heat or burn." The Roman
scholar Pliny the Elder
explained the wax encaustic painting technique in his first-century book Natural History. The Egyptian Romano
-Egyptian Fayum mummy portraits, painted between 100 - 300 AD, are the oldest Encaustic panel paintings still in existence. Jasper Johns
and Benjamin Calau
are the name of some famous artists that uses the art medium for their artworks.On the other hand,
Tempera is also an ancient painting media. It is a water-soluble and long lasting painting medium made up of colored pigments and a water-soluble binder medium, usually viscous fluid like egg yolk. Tempera is a water soluble and fast drying painting medium, used long before the modern oil paints.
This Painting is also known as egg tempera. can be traced back to the 1st century BC, when it was used to decorate Egyptian sarcophagi
. This paint was used to create high-quality art in Bagh Caves
, Madhya Pradesh, India
, from the late fourth to the tenth centuries. It is also used by artists such as Sandro Botticelli
, and Carlo Crivelli
in the majority of their artworks.
The most basic encaustic media can be made by blending colors with waxes like beeswax and damar resin, as well as other ingredients. Dried powdered pigments can be used for pigmentation, while some artists prefer to use colored wax, inks, oil paints, or other forms of pigmentation.
On the contrary, Tempera paintings are very long-lasting painting medium, and Egg yolk is the primary binder for the painting. But now a days, synthetic binders also used, which are same viscous as the egg yolk. Traditionally, egg yolk was added in proper ratio to the color pigments (powder) to make the paint. Sometimes milk and a variety of plant gums also used to make the paint more sticky. Unlike the encaustic paint, the tempera paint is water soluble.
The paint has the consistency of translucent clay. When it's hot, it may be applied like liquid paint, but when it cools, it solidifies, allowing you to cut, carve, stamp, or even sculpt it, giving the painting a 3D effect. Because they are based on oil or wax, encaustic paint and its products are entirely waterproof. Despite being formed by melting on heat, it can withstand sunlight. Additionally, even if it is in the sun all day, it does not fade, although it is recommended to keep the painting in normal temperature.
But, Using viscous fluids like egg yolk makes the art more creamy like, which allows artists to create smooth strokes on canvas and helps to make a uniform painting. This paint dries rapidly. It can be applied in thin, semi-opaque or transparent layers. The egg tempera is water resistant but not waterproof. Tempera paint cannot withstand heat. If it comes into contact with extremely hot temperatures, it will quickly melt or burn.
Because encaustic wax shares many qualities with oil paints, it may provide a very glossy and appealing effect, as well as a wide range of possibilities for elegant and expressive artworks. It has the consistency of translucent clay. When it's hot, it may be applied like liquid paint, but when it cools, it solidifies, allowing you to cut, carve, stamp, or even sculpt it, giving the painting a 3D effect. Although Encaustic wax has many of the same characteristics as oil paint, it dries much faster, therefore the colors don't bleed into one another.
In opposition, It is used to create paintings with rich line texture, steely lines, sharp edges, and overall decorative flat pattern outcomes due to its quick drying ability and versatile usability. The tempera painting's finishing typically has semi-opaque, matte colors. Despite being made of organic materials, the painting is less pigmented and more transparent than oil. The best thing about the paints is that the color of the paint does not change over time. Rather, oil paints darken, turn yellow, and become transparent with age.
In the encaustic technique, hot wax is applied in layer to laminated wood panels to produce opaque or translucent results. For various finishes, each of these layers can also be modified by scraping, texturing, or polishing. Encaustic is a waterproof and water-resiatant art media. It does not need any exteranl glass cover to make it long lasting.
Encaustic paintings has many advantages, but there are some disadvantages also. For example, the Encaustic painting needs a heat lamp or heat gun to fuse and bind the medium. Along this, Encaustic paintings should be kept strictly on normal temperature, should avoid direct sunlight, also routinely buffed the paintings within 6 - 12 months using soft lint free clothes like pantyhose.
Instead, Tempera painting produces smooth matte finish with higher color saturation. It can be used for more precise artworks as it enables to use cross hatching technique by various sizes of brushes. Egg tempera is water-resistant, but not waterproof. So the paintings made by the paint cannot be stored directly. Also the the painting is not a flexible painting. For this very rigid board is used, and the the paint should be applied in a very thin layer. To make the paint more durable over time, now-a-days, an extra layer of transparent fluids like cellulose lecquor is coated on it.
Unlike oil and encaustic paintings, the tempera painting is resistant to light, and its colors do not darken or change with age.
The most of encaustic paintings are totally safe to use because they are formed of color pigments and wax as a binder. Additionally, the acrylic wax used in encaustic paint to bind the pigments makes it suitable for vegans. Beeswax, for example, is an animal-extracted wax, so it cannot be utilised in vegan products. So the wax used to hold the pigment together is a factor.
Yet, All types of tempera paintings are water baesd and they are non-toxic, so tempera paints can be used by kids. Unlike the encaustic paintings, the egg tempera paintings contains egg yoke and hence they are not vegan friendly. Althogh some modern tempera paint manufactuerers uses some alternative binders like starch or cellulose, which makes it vegan friendly.