Difference Between Tempera and Indian Ink
A water-soluble binder material, typically a viscous liquid like egg yolk, and colorful pigments are what make up the long-lasting painting medium known as tempera. Long before the advent of contemporary oil paints, a water-soluble and quick-drying painting medium called tempera was utilised.
This Painting is also known as egg tempera. can be traced back to the 1st century BC, when it was used to decorate Egyptian sarcophagi
. This paint was used to create high-quality art in Bagh Caves
, Madhya Pradesh, India
, from the late fourth to the tenth centuries. It is also used by artists such as Sandro Botticelli
, and Carlo Crivelli
in the majority of their artworks.On the other hand,
Black ink is used in the technique of ink painting, also known as Indian ink painting, shui mo hua (Chinese), or ink work. One of its distinctive features is the capacity to alter the ink grade with a single brush stroke by adjusting the nib's pressure and position.
Artist Wang Wei
introduced the method of ink painting during the Tang dynasty somewhere between 618 and 907 AD. It prospered during the Shang dynasty
(960-1279), and mostly traded with Ancient India, and so it is also known as Indian Ink. Zen Buddhist Monks
brought the technique to Japan
around 1350. During the Muromachi
period (1338-1573), ink painting reached its peak of popularity among Japanese artists and calligraphers
. The oldest intact brush of the Warring States
period (475221 BC) was found in the tomb of the citizens of Chu
. The Shanghai School
is well known for its modern and contemporary Chinese freehand ink wash painting, and the most representative artists are Wu Changshuo
, Pu Hua
, Wang Zhen
, Qi Baishi
, Huang Binhong
Egg yolk is the primary binder for the tempera painting, so it is also called Egg Tempera painting. But now a days, synthetic binders are also used instead of the egg yolk, which are same viscous as the egg yolk. Traditionally, egg yolk was added in proper ratio to the powdered color pigments to make the paint. Sometimes milk and a variety of plant gums also used to make the paint more sticky.
On the contrary, Ink Painting is a water based painting medium, but not uniformly soluble in water. The color pigment ink is formed in a colloidal solution on water, with the water serving as a carrier solution for the pigment. color pigments are produced from a mixture of solid substances, including rocks, metals, minerals, charcoal, and so on.
Using viscous fluids like egg yolk makes the art more creamy like, which allows artists to create smooth strokes on canvas and helps to make a uniform painting. Different color pigment powders are blended along with the binder (egg yolk) to get paste like tempera painting, which is applied by using the art brushes. It can be applied in thin, semi-opaque or transparent layers.
But, Even though the ink provides a less vibrant color, it is more durable and less likely to fade. As the Indian Ink is a colloidal mixture based on water, different color pigments can be mixed to the mixture to make colorful inks. To make artworks more light and for better blending purposes Isopropyl Alcohol or Alcohol Blending Solution are also used. The Isopropyl Alcohol solution gives matte finish, and so to finish up with shine, Claro Extender is used.
Tempera is mostly used for making descriptive arworks like portraits, for example Lamentation of Christ
, Sandro Botticelli Portrait
etc. Tempera adheres best to absorbent surfaces that have a lower oil content than the tempera binder used. The best thing about the paints is that the color of the paint does not change over time. Rather, oil paints darken, turn yellow, and become transparent with age.In opposition,
The artist's sudden inspiration after viewing any beautiful scenery is represented in the Ink painting technique, which does not place a high value on a precise depiction of a real scene or object. As a result, it is difficult to copy or reproduce this type of painting. This painting often feature trees, flowers, landscapes, animals, birds and people.
A smooth matte texture with more color intensity is created by tempera paintings. As it allows for the use of cross hatching technique with a variety of brush sizes, it can be used for artwork that is more exact. Egg tempera is not waterproof but is water-resistant. Thus, it is impossible to directly store the paintings created using the tempera paint. Additionally, the painting is not adaptable. For this, a highly hard board is used, and only a very thin layer of paint should be employed. Nowadays, a second layer of translucent liquids such cellulose lecquor is applied to paint to increase its durability over time.
Instead, Ink paintings or Indian ink paintings, like other types of artwork, may fade with time as a result of environmental influences, but this can be avoided by using sealant with UV protection, which helps to halt the damage and maintain the paintings' vibrant colors. Ink paint techniques may produce a wide range of tones and hues by altering the ink's density. Although ink painting is distinct and offers a number of benefits, once a stroke is created, it cannot be changed or removed. Ink painters spend years honing their brush motion and ink flow by practising fundamental brush strokes as a result. As a result, ink and wash painting is a technically challenging art style that needs a high level of expertise, focus, and years of practice.
There are two types of tempera paint, some of which are poisonous and others which are not. Although most tempera paint are non-toxic because they are frequently water soluble, it is important to consider what kind of paint is best for the piece and should be purchased. Contrarily, tempera paint clearly is not vegan since Egg Yoke is its primary ingredient.
Yet, It is debated if Indian Ink is poisonous or not. However, Indian Ink must never be applied to the skin or used for tattooing. Modern Indian ink pigments also contain a shellac binder to offer water resistance. The fact that the shellac binder is an animal product leads us to the conclusion that contemporary Indian ink is not vegan-friendly, but that the traditional ink, which is made from soot.
Credit to @forid
Indian Ink Painting